Hybrid Football

Hybrid Football Football Games

Hybrid football games:

Wheelchair rugby (Murderball, Quad rugby)

The Wheelchair rugby is the sport for the summer Paralympic games. The all the qualified players have disabilities. Each of players get point(s) between 0.5 and 3.5 according to their disability classifications. The total points for 1 team cannot go more than 8 points at all time.

The players are on manual wheelchairs. The front bumper is the vital part for both striking the opposite players and protecting from hard crashes. It also has spoke protectors, so that it prevents from getting damage in the wheels. The gameplay involves full contacts between wheelchairs and it appear very aggressive for the sport played by handicapped athletes. Hence the sport is also called the Murderball.


The Wheelchair rugby was created by disabled players in Canada in 1976. International competition was first held in 1989 in Canada. The Wheelchair Rugby had the exhibition match at the International Stoke Mandeville Games in 1990. The IWRF (International Wheelchair Rugby Federation) was founded in Delta, Canada in 1993. The IWRF World Wheelchair Rugby Championship was first held in Nottwil, Switzerland, in 1995. The Wheelchair rugby played an exhibition match at the 1996 summer Paralympic games in Atlanta. The Wheelchair Rugby became the official sport for the summer Paralympic games in 2000.


The Wheelchair rugby is played on the hardwood court where is indoor in general. The court size of the Wheelchair rugby is 28m long x 15m wide, which is same as the basketball court.

1 game consists of 4 quarters of 8 minutes respectively. The Wheelchair rugby uses a volleyball. 1 team is made up of 4 players. The ball carrier must bounce or pass the ball within 10 seconds. Striking from behind and direct physical contact between players are prohibited although contacts between the wheelchairs is permitted.

Major competitions:

IWRF Wheelchair Rugby World Championships.

IWRF Americas Championship.

IWRF European Championship.

IWRF Asia-Oceania Championship.

Wheelchair Rugby of the Summer Paralympic games.

Cycle ball (Radball)

The Cycle ball uses the special made bicycle and played on the court just like the Association football. However, players don’t kick with feet. Players use wheels instead to control and shoot the ball. The goalkeepers are allowed to use hands. A German-American, Nicholas Edward Kaufmann started the Cycle ball in 1893 and it’s also called Radball in German. The World Championship was first held in 1929.

Motorsports football

The Motorsports football is the sports based on Association football and played by the motor-driven machines such as motorcycles and cars.

Motorcycle football (Motorball, Motorcycle soccer)

There is the record that the competition, the Football Motor Cycle was held in 1927 and the Coventry team won the final. The Motorcycle football is popular in the UK and across Europe. The ball used is bigger, so it is less likely to get stuck under the wheels.

Car football

The Car football is played by the motorcars. The ball used is large so that cars can hit the ball properly.


The Speedball was invented in the Michigan, USA in 1920’s. It is very pacey game combining the Association football and other sports. In Speedball players can score points by different methods such as throwing the ball in the goal (1 points), kicking the ball to the goal (3 points) and putting the ball into the basket (2 points). 1 team is made up of 5 players or more including a goalkeeper. The Speedball may be played on the Basketball court or the Association football field.

The goal size of the Speedball may vary, for example, 6ft width x 2.5ft height. The ball used in Speedball varies, for example, Association football, Volleyball, American football and Rugby football. The positions of the Speedball in case of 5-a side are Goal Keeper (GK), Defensive Back (DB), Center (C), Right Winger (RW) and Left Winger (LW). There are variants in Speedball like the SEAL Speedball (Naval Special Warfare Command).

Freestyle football (Freestyle soccer)

The Freestyle football derived from the street performance. It combines the elements of the Association football’s Keepie uppie and the rhythmic gymnastics. The popularity surged since Freestyle football was used for branding campaigns.

The rules vary but generally the judges rate the display according to difficulty, originality, skills, tricks, variety and mistakes.

Major international competitions are

the FF World Tour,

the Superball – World Open Championships,

the Red Bull Street Style,

the F3 European Championships,

the F3 Asian Championships and

the SISM American Panna & Freestyle Tournament.

The Freestyle Football Federation was established in the UK in 2011. Another sporting body is the World Freestyle Football Association based in the Canada.

Footbag (Hacky sack)

Sports similar to the Footbag existed since long time ago such as Jianzi, Chapteh, Sepak takraw, Sipa and Jegichagi. The current style of Footbag was introduced in 1970’s. The circle kicking is popular way of playing the Footbag.

There are variant rules to play the Footbag such as the Three-hack-slap and the Hack-elimination. The Freestyle footbag has the element of the rhythmic gymnastics. The Footbag net has the essences from tennis, badminton, and volleyball. The height of the net is 5 feet. It appears just like the Sepak Takraw.

The Basse is the Footbag game from Norway. The Hack slap is similar to the Australian foursquare rules and uses the footbag. The Footbag golf is the golf played with Footbag, which is similar to the Footgolf.

There are many ways to play the Footbag, for example, the Horse, the Kick Back, the Killer, the Knockout, the Number Catch, the Numbers, the Shark and the War.

Footbag net

The net game played with Footbag is called the Footbag net. There are similarities with badminton, volleyball and tennis. The net height is 5 feet (152.4cm). The court size of the Footbag net is similar to the one for the badminton doubles.

The IFPA (International Footbag Players Association) is the governing body for the Football. Players can only use below knees to control a footbag. Players need to serve diagonally. There are games of the singles and the doubles. The game can be won by scoring 11 or 15 points making clear gap of 2 points or more. The World Footbag Championships is held every year.


The idea of Bossaball was created by the Belgian, Filip Eyckmans in 2005 and first experimented in Spain. Bossaball has the elements of volleyball, Association football and gymnastics. 2 trampolines are placed facing each other between the net and it’s surrounded by the inflatable material on the court. A player can jump high using the trampoline to attack. Attacker can use spike or kick to return the ball to the opposite. There are competitions such as the World Cup and the European Cup.


The Footvolley combines the Beach volleyball and Association football and invented in brazil in 1965. Footvolley soon became popular on the Rio de Janeiro’s Copacabana Beach. The Structure of the rules is based on the Beach volleyball and playing with hands is forbidden. In addition, a football is used instead of a volleyball.

Football tennis (Futnet)

Football tennis was created in the Czechoslovakia in the 1920’s and the rules were officially drafted in 1940. Football tennis returns a ball to opposite just like the tennis. A special Futnet  ball similar to football replaces a tennis ball and played by feet instead of rackets. The net height is 1.10m. The court size is between 9m × 12.8m and 9m ×18m. The matches are played by singles, doubles and triples. 1 set ends with 11th point and with a 2-point difference. The maximum score is 15:14. Getting 2 sets wins the match.

The governing bodies of Football tennis:

FIFTA (Federation International de Footballtennis Association), formerly known as IFTA (International Footballtennis Association).

UNIF (Union Internationale de Futnet).

EFTA (European Futnet Association).


The Jokgu was devised at the Republic of Korea Air Force in 1960. The Jokgu has the elements of Association football and volleyball. It appears similar to Football tennis.

Players can touch the ball with only feet, shin and head. 1 team consists 4 players. Court size is 16m x 7m. The net height is 110cm. The ball used for the Jokgu is 360g and 20cm diameter. The ball can bounce once on the court after each touch by other players. There are 3 sets of 15 points in 1 game. The rally point system applies and need to have clear 2 points to win a game.

Kickball (Kick baseball, Soccer baseball)

The Kickball was devised by Nicholas C. Seuss in Ohio, the USA around 1910’s and it was introduced in the physical education. The structure of the game is based on the baseball and a larger ball is used instead of a baseball. The ball used for the Kickball is an inflated rubber ball, and the size is 8.5 inch to 16 inch (21.59cm to 40.64cm) diameter.

The ball is kicked rather than using a baseball bat. It is reasonably easier to hit the ball than normal baseball since the ball size is larger and the ball speed is slower. The ball is much softer and safer. Therefore, the Kickball is suitable for children. The field used for the Kickball is the diamond of the softball in general.


The structure of rules for the Footgolf is based on golf. A golf ball is replaced by a football and golf clubs are replaced by kicking. The cup size is 21 inch to accommodate the larger ball. Footgolf can be played in the golf courses. Finishing the course with fewer shots wins the game.

Advantage of the Footgolf is that it requires much less than normal golf equipment. The ball game similar to Footgolf called the Codeball was played in 1920’s and 1930’s. The Footgolf competition was first held in the Netherlands and the participants included professional Association footballers.

The FIFG (Federation for International FootGolf) was formed and the first FootGolf World Cup was held in Hungary in 2012. The AFGL (American FootGolf League) organises the game in the USA.

Codeball (Codeball-on-the-green)

The Codeball was invented by William Edward Code in Chicago, the USA, in 1929. The Codeball combines Association football and golf. The fairway consists 14 bowls instead of holes of the golf. The ball is made of rubber and 6 inch.


The Codeball-on-the-court is another sport created by William Edward Code. It combines the Association football and the handball. 1 player kicks a 6 inch ball to the wall and the other player returns it on the second bounce.


The Volata was introduced during 1920’s and 1930’s in Italy. The development was made with inspirations from the Calcio Fiorentino and the Roman ball game, Harpastum. It is 8-a-side game and briefly played in Italy.


The Bandy has the elements of Association football, ice hockey and field hockey. 1 game consists of 2 halves of 45 minutes, which is the same as Association football. 1 team is the same size, 11 players. The field size is similar, 45m to 65m (148ft to 213ft) x 90m to110m (300ft to 360ft). There is the offside rule. The positions can be categorised in to goalkeeper, defenders, midfielders and forwards. The formations are similar to the ones of the Association football.

The equipment used for the Bandy include bandy stick, bandy skates, a helmet, a mouth guard for field players. In addition, a face guard is needed for the goalkeeper. The bandy ball is round-shaped and its diameter is 62.4 mm or 63.8 mm, and it is made of rubber with the cork core inside.

The European championship was held in 1913. The Federation of International Bandy was established in Sweden in 1955. The Bandy World Championship was first organised in 1957.

The World Cup, which is the biggest club competition, is played annually.

There are variants such as the Rink bandy (Rinkball) and Seven-a-side bandy.

Universal football

The Universal football is the game combining the Australian football and the Rugby league proposed in early 1900’s. The discussions were held but due to the major differences between the 2 codes, it was the hard process to find the compromises. The example for the rules is that there is no scrum and restart method is the ball-up. The field size of the Universal football is the rectangular, 160yd long x 100yd wide. 1 team is 15 players. The goalposts, which are H-shaped rugby style, consist of 2 poles 18ft apart each other and crossbar at 10ft high.


This is the compromised game of Australian rules football and American football invented while military personnel from the United States stationed in Australia during the World War Two. Austus is almost the standard Aussie rules and has some elements from North American counterpart such as forward passing. The ball thrown 10 yards or more by hands can be marked just like kicks.

The game under the rules of Austus was first played between the Australian factory team and US military at the Punt Road Oval on 18th of July 1943 and the score was 5.8 (38) – 8.4 (52). Another game was played a few weeks later and Australian team brought in the top tier players this time. The Australian won the game 17.23 (125) – 8.1 (49).

International rules football

The International rules football is the hybrid sport invented in order to make the international games playable between the Australian football team and the Gaelic football team. The Australia national team is organised by the AFL (Australian Football League) while the Ireland national team is selected by the GAA (Gaelic Athletic Association).

The first international rules match was held in Ireland during the Australian Football World Tour in 1967. The game has various categories such as Men, Women, Juniors, Masters and Amateurs. International rules football games are attracting global audiences.


1 game consists of 4 quarters of 18 minutes respectively. 1 team is made up of 15 players. Players are allowed to grab between the shoulders and thighs and take down to the field. This way of tackling is prohibited in Gaelic football.

The international rules use the round shaped ball and the rectangular field of the size 160yd x 98yd approximately, which are from the Gaelic football.

2 taller posts are 6.5m apart and have the crossbar at the height of 2.5m. The goal net is used. These are the same as the Gaelic football. A shorter post on further 6.5m to the side of each goal post is in place. These 2 shorter posts are the behind posts from the Australian football.

How to count the points of the International rules football:

A goal: Under the crossbar into the goal net: 6 points.

An over: Over the crossbar and between the 2 taller posts: 3 points.

A behind: Between the taller and shorter posts at either side: 1 point.

Author: Takuya Nagata. Amazon Profile

Novel writer, Creator. Travelled to Brazil and trained football at CFZ do Rio (Centro de Futebol Zico Sociedade Esportiva) in Rio de Janeiro. Played soccer for the Urawa Reds (Urawa Red Diamonds), one of the biggest football clubs in Japan, and toured Europe. Retired at a young age and voyaged alone to England and graduated from UCA, the UK’s university. Established careers as journalist, football coach, consultant, etc. across Europe such as Spain. Knowledgeable in creative and technology fields as well. Launched “MINIЯISM” (minirism), the art movement that contributes to the development of societies and the knowledge hub “The Minimalist.” The founder of “Propulsive Football” (PROBALL), the world’s first-ever competitive mixed football, facilitating diversity and spirit for equal participation in society. Also writing for “Football Game Sphere.”

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